A simple and convenient protocol for the cryopreservation of the flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) sperm was established for "on the spot" cryopreservation of large quantities of semen. The use of three cryoprotectants, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), glycerol (Gly) and methanol was tested in the method. The percentage of motile sperm present in semen after it had been frozen and thawed in the presence of DMSO, Gly or methanol was 60.5 +/- 3.6, 79.17 +/- 4.5 and 13.25 +/- 4.7%, respectively. The fertilization rates of this sperm were 67.06 +/- 15.1, 76.20 +/- 10.0 and 44.93 +/- 22.6%, while the hatching rates of eggs fertilized with this sperm were 37.40 +/- 8.3, 48.18 +/- 25.7 and 23.35 +/- 10.8%, respectively. It was found that Gly and DMSO were better cryoprotectants than methanol, with Gly giving the best overall results. Under scanning electron microscopy, it could be seen that while the majority of the frozen-thawed sperm remained morphologically normal, some exhibited lost or dilated mitochondria, swollen mid-pieces, broken tails, or damaged cell membrane, which probably caused the decrease in motility and fertility of the frozen-thawed sperm. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
In mid-May 2008 a serious green tide caused mainly by floating Ulva prolifera (Muller) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) thalli struck the coastal area of Qingdao, China. To understand the present physiological conditions of the floating alga, in this work both laboratory and field investigations were conducted on the floating U. prolifera thalli in comparison with the attached U. prolifera thalli collected from the area. The floating thalli of three distinctively different colors and attached thalli at three different stages of sporangium formation process were characterized under a microscope, while their photosynthetic parameters were determined with chlorophyll fluorescence technology. On the other hand, the sporangium formation status of the floating U. prolifera thalli was surveyed both in the laboratory and in the field. Comparisons showed that both of the paired morphological characteristics and the paired physiological parameters of the floating and attached U. prolifera thalli were consistent. Furthermore, some spores were confirmed in the field and some motile particles were found within the floating thalli. These results suggest that the floating U. prolifera thalli with different colors could be at different stages of sporangium formation. However, our results also showed that the floating alga thalli have only a limited reproductive potential. This might limit the duration and the further geographic expansion of the green algal bloom.
Indirect immunofluorescence staining was used to detect cytological changes of isolated blastodisks during mitosis of flounder haploid eggs treated with hydrostatic pressure. Changes in microtubule structure and expected cleavage suppression were observed from blastodisk formation to the third cell cycle, with obvious differences between treated and control eggs. In most eggs, microtubules were disassembled and the nucleation capacity of the centrosome was temporarily inhibited after pressure treatment. Within 15-20 min after treatment, the nucleation capacity of the centrosome began to gradually recover, with slow regeneration of microtubules; approximately 25 min after treatment, the nucleation capacity of the centrosome recovered completely, regenerated distinct bipolar spindles, and the first mitosis ensued. During the second cell cycle, approximately 61% of the embryos were at the two-cell stage, with a monopolar spindle in each blastomere; that treatment was effective was based on second cleavage blockage. Approximately 15% of the eggs still remained at the one-cell stage and had a monopolar spindle (treatment was effective, according to the general model of first cleavage blockage). However, treatment was ineffective in approximately 15% of the embryos (bipolar spindle in each blastomeres) and in another 8% (bipolar spindle in one of the two blastomeres and a monopolar spindle in the other; both mechanisms operating in different parts of the embryo). This is the first report elucidating mitotic gynogenetic diploid induction by hydrostatic pressure in marine fishes and provides a cytological basis for developing an efficient method of inducing mitotic gynogenesis in olive flounder. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karyotype and chromosomal location of the major ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) were studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in five species of Crassostrea: three Asian-Pacific species (C. gigas, C. plicatula, and C. ariakensis) and two Atlantic species (C. virginica and C. rhizophorae). FISH probes were made by PCR amplification of the intergenic transcribed spacer between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes, and labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP. All five species had a haploid number of 10 chromosomes. The Atlantic species had 1-2 submetacentric chromosomes, while the three Pacific species had none. FISH with metaphase chromosomes detected a single telomeric locus for rDNA in all five species without any variation. In all three Pacific species, rDNA was located on the long arm of Chromosome 10 (10q)-the smallest chromosome. In the two Atlantic species, rDNA was located on the short arm of Chromosome 2 (2p)-the second longest chromosome. A review of other studies reveals the same distribution of NOR sites (putative rDNA loci) in three other species: on 10q in C. sikamea and C. angulata from the Pacific Ocean and on 2p in C. gasar from the western Atlantic. All data support the conclusion that differences in size and shape of the rDNA-bearing chromosome represent a major divide between Asian-Pacific and Atlantic species of Crassostrea. This finding suggests that chromosomal divergence can occur under seemingly conserved karyotypes and may play a role in reproductive isolation and speciation.
With the purpose of finding an ideal cryoprotectant or combination of cryoprotectants in a suitable concentration for flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) embryo cryopreservation, we tested the toxicities, at culture temperature (16 degrees C), of five most commonly used cryoprotectants-dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), glycerol, methanol (MeOH), 1,2-propylene glycol (PG) and ethylene glycol (EG). In addition, cryoprotective efficiency to flounder embryos of individual and combined cryoprotectants were tested at -15 degrees C for 60 min. Five different concentrations of each of the five cryoprotectants and 20 different combinations of these cryoprotectants were tested for their protective efficiency. The results showed that the toxicity to flounder embryos of the five cryoprotectants are in the following sequence: PG < MeOH < Me2SO < glycerol < EG (P EG (greater symbols mean P 0.05). Methanol combined with any one of the other cryoprotectants gave the best protection, while ethylene glycol combined with any one of the other cryoprotectants gave the poorest protection at -15 degrees C. Toxicity effect was concentration dependent with the lowest concentration being the least toxic for all five cryoprotectants at 16 degrees C. For PG, MeOH and glycerol, 20% solutions gave the best protection at -15 degrees C; whereas a 15% solution of Me2SO, and a 10% solution of EG, gave the best protection at -15 degrees C. (c) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The objectives were to assess motility, fertilizing capacity, structural integrity, and mitochondrial function in fresh versus frozen-thawed (15% DMSO was used as a cryoprotectant) sperm from red seabrearn (Pagrus major). Mean (+/- S.D.) rates of motility, fertilization and hatching of frozen-thawed sperm were 81.0 +/- 5.4, 92.8 +/- 1.9, and 91.8 +/- 5.2%, respectively; for fresh sperm, they were 87.5 +/- 7.7, 95.8 +/- 2.4, and 93.8 +/- 4.2%. Although motility was lower in frozen-thawed versus fresh sperm (P 0.05) of cryopreservation on fertilization or hatching. Based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy, 77.8 +/- 5.6% of fresh sperm had normal morphology, whereas for frozen-thawed sperm, 63.0 +/- 7.2% had normal morphology, 20.6 +/- 3.1% were slightly damaged (e.g. swelling or rupture of head, mid-piece and tail region as well as mitochondria), and 16.4 +/- 4.2% were severely damaged. Sperm were stained with propidium iodide and Rhodamine 123 to assess plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial function, respectively, and examined with flow cytometry. For fresh sperm, 83.9% had an intact membrane and functional mitochondria, whereas for frozen-thawed sperm, 74.8% had an intact membrane and functional mitochondria, 12.7% had a damaged membrane, 9.9% had nonfunctional mitochondria, and 2.6% had both a damaged membrane and nonfunctional mitochondria. In conclusion, ultrastructure and flow cytometry were valuable for assessment of frozen-thawed sperm quality; cryopreservation damaged the sperm but fertilizing ability was not significantly decreased. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.