In an effort to develop cultured cell models for toxicity screening and environmental biomonitoring, we compared primary cultured gill epithelia and hepatocytes from freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to assess their sensitivity to AhR agonist toxicants. Epithelia were cultured on permeable supports (terephthalate membranes, "filters") and bathed on the apical with waterborne toxicants (pseudo in vivo asymmetrical culture conditions). Hepatocytes were cultured in multi-well plates and exposed to toxicants in culture medium. Cytochrome P4501A (measured as 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD) was selected as a biomarker. For cultured gill epithelia, the integrity of the epithelia remained unchanged on exposure to model toxicants, such as 1,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene Ba]P, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture (Aroclor 1254), and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture (DE71). A good concentration-dependent response of EROD activity was clearly observed in both cultured gill epithelia and hepatocytes. The time-course response of EROD was measured as early as 3 h, and was maximal after 6 h of exposure to TCDD, B alp and Aroclor 1254. The estimated 6 h EC50 for TCDD, B a]P, and Aroclor 1254 was 1.2x10(-9), 5.7x10(-8) and 6.6x10(-6) M. For the cultured hepatocytes, time-course study showed that a significant induction of EROD took place at 18 h, and the maximal induction of EROD was observed at 24 h after exposure. The estimated 24 It EC50 for TCDD, Ba]P, and Aroclor 1254 was 1.4x10(-9), 8.1x10(-8) and 7.3x10(-6) M. There was no induction or inhibition of EROD in DE71 exposure to both gill epithelia and hepatocytes. The results show that cultured gill epithelia more rapidly induce EROD and are slightly more sensitive than cultured hepatocytes, and could be used as a rapid and sensitive tool for screening chemicals and monitoring environmental AhR agonist toxicants. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perfluorinated organic compounds (PFOCs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) widely present in the environment, wildlife and human. We studied the cellular toxicology of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on oxidative stress and induction of apoptosis in primary cultured hepatocytes of freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Cultured hepatocytes were exposed to PFOS or PFOA (0, 1, 5, 15 and 30 mg L-1) for 24 h, and a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was determined using trypan blue exclusion method. Significant induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accompanied by increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) were found, while activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were decreased. Glutathione (GSH) content was reduced following treatment of PFOA and PFOS. A dose-dependent increase in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level (measured as maleic dialdehyde, MDA) was observed only in the PFOA exposure groups, whereas LPO remained unchanged in the PFOS exposure groups. Furthermore, a significant activation of caspase-3, -8, -9 activities was evident in both PFOS and PFOA exposure groups. Typical DNA fragmentation (DNA laddering) was further characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis. The overall results demonstrated that PFOS and PFOA are able to produce oxidative stress and induce apoptosis with involvement of caspases in primary cultured tilapia hepatocytes. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chlorella pyrenoidosa was cultured with 350 and 700 p.p.m.v. CO2 at varied levels of light to see the impacts of doubled atmospheric CO2 concentration on its growth and photosynthesis. The CO2 enrichment did not affect the growth rate (mu), but significantly increased the cell density when light was sufficiently supplied. The CO2 enrichment significantly depressed light-saturated photosynthesis and dark respiration in the cells grown under a high-light regime, but not those under a low-light regime. The light-saturating point for photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency was not affected by the CO2 enrichment under either the high-light or low-light conditions.