Dimensional analysis is an essential scientific method and a powerful tool for solving problems in physics and engineering. This book starts by introducing the Pi Theorem, which is the theoretical foundation of dimensional analysis. It also provides ample and detailed examples of how dimensional analysis is applied to solving problems in various branches of mechanics. The book covers the extensive findings on explosion mechanics and impact dynamics contributed by the author’s research group over the past forty years at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The book is intended for research scientists and engineers working in the fields of physics and engineering, as well as graduate students and advanced undergraduates of the related fields. Qing-Ming Tan is a former Professor at the Institute of Mechanics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
Electrochemical-total internal reflection ellipsometry (EC-TIRE) has been proposed as a technique to observe the redox reactions on the electrode surface due to its high phase sensitivity to the electrolyte/electrode interface. In this paper, we mainly focus on the influence of the potential modulation on the TIRE response. The analysis suggests that both dielectric constant variation of gold and the electric double layer transformation would modulate the reflection polarization of the surface. For a nonfaradaic process, the signal of TIRE would be proportional to the potential modulation. To testify the analysis, linear sweep voltammetry and open circuit measurement have been performed. The results strongly support the system analysis.
Reticular crack is generally found on the surface of ceramic material that has been subjected to a thermal-shock condition. In the present study, a quantitative effect of thermal shock and quench temperature has been studied and investigated. Experimental tests were carried out to characterize the reticular crack that has been found in the Ge Kiln, which is a famous art of the ancient Chinese culture. After comparative analysis between thermal-shock cracks and the glaze crack patterns of the Ge Kiln porcelain, it is found that this study is expected to provide a powerful tool for recurrence of the long-lost firing and cooling process of the Ge Kiln porcelain.
Bacteria can form biofilm streamers in microfluidic channels with various geometries. Experiments show that the streamer geometry, such as its shape or thickness, depends on the fluid velocity and the geometry and curvature of the microfluidic channel. In the paper, a mechanical analysis of the flow field is made in different channels, which shows that the secondary flow in the channel is the reason for streamer nucleation and that the shear stress distribution decides the streamer geometry including shape and thickness. Through a finite elements simulation, we obtain the secondary flow forming positions in both static and rotating channels: positions that are the location of nucleation of the streamer. Thick or wide biofilm streamers occur at the points of minimum shear stress in static channels. Furthermore, in rotating channels, spiral-like streamers form, due to the helical shape of the minimum shear stress distribution. The findings may allow the prevention of biofilm formation and also the removal of bacteria adhered onto certain surfaces in channels with small cross sections. The analysis also indicates how one can obtain desirable biofilm streamers by control of the channel geometry and the loading conditions.
Because brittle solids fail catastrophically during normal tension and compression testing, nanoindentation is often a useful alternative technique for measuring their mechanical properties and assessing their deformation characteristics. One practical question to be addressed in such studies is the relationship between the anisotropy in the uniaxial mechanical behavior to that in the indentation response. To this end, a systematic study of the mechanical behavior the 6H polytype of a hexagonal silicon carbide single crystal (SiC-6H) was performed using standard nanoindentation methods. The indentation elastic modulus and hardness measured using a Berkovich indenter at a peak load of 500 mN varied over a wide range of crystal orientation by only a few percent. The variation in modulus is shown to be consistent with an anisotropic elastic contact analysis based on the known single crystal elastic constants of the material. The variation in hardness is examined using a single crystal plasticity model that considers the anisotropy of slip in hexagonal crystals. When compared to experimental measurements, the analysis confirms that plasticity in SiC-6H is dominated by basal slip. An anisotropic elastic contact analysis provides insights into the relationship between the pop-in load, which characterizes the transition from elasticity to plasticity during nanoindentation testing, and the theoretical strength of the material. The observations and analyses lay the foundations for further examination of the deformation and failure mechanisms in anisotropic materials by nanoindentation techniques.
From a microscopic point of view, the real contact area between two rough surfaces is the sum of the areas of contact between facing asperities. Since the real contact area is a fraction of the nominal contact area, the real contact pressure is much higher than the nominal contact pressure, which results in plastic deformation of asperities. As plasticity is size dependent at size scales below tens of micrometers, with the general trend of smaller being harder, macroscopic plasticity is not suitable to describe plastic deformation of small asperities and thus fails to capture the real contact area and pressure accurately. Here we adopt conventional mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity (CMSGP) to analyze the contact between a rigid platen and an elasto-plastic solid with a rough surface. Flattening of a single sinusoidal asperity is analyzed first to highlight the difference between CMSGP and J(2) isotropic plasticity. For the rough surface contact, besides CMSGP, pure elastic and J(2) isotropic plasticity analysis is also carried out for comparison. In all cases, the contact area A rises linearly with the applied load, but with a different slope which implies that the mean contact pressures are different. CMSGP produces qualitative changes in the distributions of local contact pressures compared with pure elastic and J(2) isotropic plasticity analysis, furthermore, bounded by the two. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The onset of solutal convection during the directional solidification of Bridgman type of liquid Al-3.5 wt%Li is studied. Based on the analysis of a liquid-inhomogeneous-porous-double-layer system, a bimodal feature of neutral stability curve is found. The pulling rate is ascertained as the governing parameter for the mode transition, i.e., it determines whether the microstructure in the mushy layer is related to convection after the system destabilizes.
We study the difference in the maximum stress on a cylinder surface sigma(max) using the measured surface heat transfer coefficient h(m) instead of its average value h(a) during quenching. In the quenching temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800 degrees C, the maximum surface stress sigma(mmax) calculated by h(m) is always smaller than sigma(amax) calculated by h(a), except in the case of 800 degrees C; while the time to reach sigma(max) calculated by h(m) (f(mmax)) is always earlier than that by h(a) (f(amax)). It is inconsistent with the traditional view that sigma(max) increases with increasing Biot number and the time to reach sigma(max) decreases with increasing Biot number. Other temperature-dependent properties also have a small effect on the trendof their mutualratios with quenching temperatures. Such a difference between the two maximum surface stresses is caused by the dramatic variation of h(m) with temperature, which needs to be considered in engineering analysis.
Debris flow is one of the major secondary mountain hazards following the earthquake. This study explores the dynamic initiation mechanism of debris flows based on the strength reduction of soils through static and dynamic triaxial tests. A series of static and dynamic triaxial tests were conducted on samples in the lab. The samples were prepared according to different grain size distribution, degree of saturation and earthquake magnitudes. The relations of dynamic shear strength, degree of saturation, and number of cycles are summarized through analyzing experimental results. The findings show that the gravelly soil with a wide and continuous gradation has a critical degree of saturation of approximately 87%, above which debris flows will be triggered by rainfall, while the debris flow will be triggered at a critical degree of saturation of about 73% under the effect of rainfall and earthquake (M > 6.5). Debris flow initiation is developed in the humidification process, and the earthquake provides energy for triggering debris flows. Debris flows are more likely to be triggered at the relatively low saturation under dynamic loading than under static loading. The resistance of debris flow triggering relies more on internal frication angle than soil cohesion under the effect of rainfall and earthquake. The conclusions provide an experimental analysis method for dynamic initiation mechanism of debris flows.