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期刊名称: Journal of Mammalian Evolution
Volume:25    Issue:4        Page:551-564
ISSN:1064-7554

Feeding Ecology in Oligocene Mylodontoid Sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra) as Revealed by Orthodentine Microwear Analysis期刊论文

作者: Kalthoff Daniela C Green Jeremy L
DOI:10.1007/s10914-017-9405-x

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页码: 551-564
被引频次: 2
出版者: Springer US,SPRINGER,Springer
期刊名称: Journal of Mammalian Evolution
ISSN: 1064-7554
卷期: Volume:25    Issue:4
语言: English
摘要: Recently, dental microwear analysis has been successfully employed to xenarthran teeth. Here, we present new data on use wear features on 16 molariforms of Orophodon hapaloides and Octodontotherium grande. These taxa count among the earliest sloths and are known from the Deseadan SALMA (late Oligocene). Modern phylogenetic analyses classify Octodontotherium and Orophodon within Mylodontoidea with whom they share lobate cheek teeth with an outer layer of cementum and a thick layer of orthodentine. Similar target areas of 100μm2 were analyzed on the orthodentine surface of each tooth by stereomicroscopic microwear and by SEM microwear. Results were unlike those of extant sloths (stereomicroscopic microwear: Bradypus, Choloepus) and published data from fossil sloths (SEM microwear: Acratocnus, Megalonyx, Megatherium, Thinobadistes); thus, both approaches independently indicate a different feeding ecology for the Oligocene taxa. The unique microwear results suggest that both taxa fed on plant material with low to moderate intrinsic toughness (foliage, twigs) but also proposes intake of tougher food items (e.g., seeds). Frequent gouging of the tooth surfaces can be explained by exogenous influence on microwear, such as possible intake of abrasive grit. We suggest an unspecialized herbivorous diet for Octodontotherium and Orophodon utilizing diverse food resources of their habitat. These interpretations support the reconstruction of (1) Deseadan environments as open habitats with spreading savannas/grasslands and (2) both taxa as wide-muzzled bulk feeders at ground level.
相关主题: Life Sciences, Human Genetics, Scanning electron microscopy, Stereomicroscopy, Paleodiet, Anthropology, Evolutionary Biology, Orthodentine, Dental microwear, Folivora, Animal Genetics and Genomics, CINGULATA, TARDIGRADA, TEXTURE ANALYSIS, ZOOLOGY, DIET, PHYLOGENETIC-RELATIONSHIPS, TREE SLOTHS, LATE PLEISTOCENE, MICROSTRUCTURE, FOSSIL, Analysis, Phylogeny, Food, Original Paper, Biological Sciences, Naturvetenskap, Dental microwear; Scanning electron microscopy; Stereomicroscopy; Folivora; Paleodiet; Orthodentine, Zoology, Biologiska vetenskaper, Zoologi, Diversity of life, Natural Sciences, Livets mångfald,

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