The world is ageing – both at an individual and population level – and this ageing produces challenges and opportunities for governments and citizens across the globe (Leeson and Harper, 2006, 2007a, b and c, 2008). In addition, the world is also becoming increasingly urbanised with more and more people living in urban settings. In 1950, 70% of people globally lived in rural settlements and just 30% in urban settlements. By 2014, 54% of the world’s population lived in urban settings and the urban population of the world is expected to continue to grow, so that by 2050, 66% of the world’s almost 10 billion inhabitants will be urban dwellers (United Nations 2014). As far as individual ageing is concerned, globally, life expectancies at birth have increased from 47 years in the mid-twentieth century to around 71 years today, and are expected to rise to around 78 years by the mid-twenty-first century. As far as population ageing is concerned, the proportion of the world’s population aged 60 years and over has increased from 200 million and 8% of world population in the mid-twentieth century to almost 1 billion and 12%, and by 2050, it is expected to reach 21% and around 2.1 billion people (United Nations 2017). This ageing is, however, not uniform across the world, nor is it uniform across regions of the world or even within countries of the world, and the individual experience of ageing as well as the societal response to ageing are diverse, giving rise to striking inequalities in many cases. Nor is urbanisation uniform across the world. In 2014, the most urbanized regions were North America (82% living in urban areas), Latin America and the Caribbean (80%), and Europe (73%), while Africa and Asia still just remained mostly rural, with 40 and 48% of their respective populations living in urban areas. All regions of the world will continue to urbanize with the most rural regions of Africa and Asia urbanizing faster than elsewhere – their urban populations reaching 56 and 64% of their total populations, respectively, by 2050. Although the share of the global population living in rural areas has declined, the absolute size of the global rural community has grown and is expected to peak in the near future (United Nations 2014). Currently, the global rural community amounts to almost 3.4 billion people. This is expected to decline to 3.2 billion people by the middle of the twenty-first century. In addition to being the least urbanised continents of the world, Africa and Asia are also home to almost 90% of the world’s total rural dwellers but as far as individual countries are concerned, India has the largest rural population (857 million), followed by China (635 million). The global urban community has increased in size almost five-fold from 746 million in 1950 to 3.9 billion in 2014. Asia has modest levels of urbanization as a region, but it is home to 53% of the world’s urban community. This compares with Europe’s 14% and Latin America and the Caribbean’s 13%. Population growth and urbanization are predicted to continue into the twenty-first century, bringing an additional 2.5 billion people to the world’s urban community by 2050, with nearly 90% of this concentrated in Asia and Africa. Strikingly, three countries alone – namely India, China and Nigeria – are together predicted to account for 37% of this projected growth in the world’s urban community between 2014 and 2050, with India adding 404 million urban dwellers, China 292 million and Nigeria 212 million. From 1950 to 1987, global population doubled from 2.5 to 5 billion and by 2050 it is expected to have almost doubled again to 9.8 billion (United Nations 2017). In 1950, 55% (1.4 billion people) of the world’s population lived in Asia, 22% (549 million people) in Europe, 9% (229 million people) in Africa, around 7% (approximately 170 million people) in both Northern America and Latin America and the Caribbean and less than 1% (13 million people) in Oceania. By 2015, the world order in terms of population had changed. The largest proportion - 60% – still lives in Asia (4.4 billion), but Africa with 16% (1.2 billion) is the now the second most populous region of the world, followed by Europe (10% and 741 million), Latin America and the Caribbean (almost 9% and 632 million), with the remaining 5% in Northern America (356 million) and Oceania (40 million).