The study was conducted on Alabna escarpment, southwestern Saudi Arabia, for evaluating the effects of elevation and soil components on the species diversity and plant community. Among 241 species (167 genera and 53 families) recorded in total, therophytes and chamaephytes prevailed in the area while bryophytes were rare. Clustering analysis revealed the presence of four community types which had a remarkable overlapping in species composition. Group 2 was the most diverse and represented by one stand with 58 species in which 19 plant species were only recorded in this group. Group 1 comprised two stands and the other two groups had more than two stands. Diversity and distribution of species were affected by elevation and element contents in the soil. The soil was slightly alkaline, not saline, contained a reasonable amount of elements and very poor in P content. Heavy metals were found in neglected quantities indicating that the area was unpolluted.