In this investigation, the free in-plane vibration analysis of orthotropic rectangular plates with non-uniform boundary conditions and internal line supports is performed with a modified Fourier solution. The exact solution for the problem is obtained using improved Fourier series method, in which both two in-plane displacements of the orthotropic rectangular plates are represented by a double Fourier cosine series and four supplementary functions, in the form of the product of a polynomial function and a single cosine series expansion, introduced to remove the potential discontinuities associated with the original displacement functions along the edges when they are viewed as periodic functions defined over the entire x–y plane. The unknown expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh–Ritz procedure. The change of the boundary conditions can be easily achieved by only varying the stiffness of the two sets of the boundary springs at the all boundary of the orthotropic rectangular plates without the need of making any change to the solutions. The excellent accuracy of the current result is validated by comparison with those obtained from other analytical approach as well as the finite element method (FEM). Numerical results are presented to illustrate the current method that is applied not only to the homogeneous boundary conditions but also to other interesting and practically important boundary restraints on free in-plane vibrations of the orthotropic rectangular plates, including varying stiffness of boundary springs, point supported, partially supported boundary conditions and internal line supports. In addition to this, the effects of locations of line supports are also investigated and reported. New results for free vibration of moderately orthotropic rectangular plates with various edge conditions and internal line supports are presented, which may be used for benchmarking of researchers in the field.