Influences of cultivar and environment, i.e. cultivation year and fertilizer rate, on amount of protein groups and amount and size distribution of mono- and polymeric proteins, were investigated in four sets of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The cultivars were chosen in order to obtain a high range of variation in protein concentration and gluten strength. Environmental influences on protein concentration and gluten strength were investigated, as well as relations between variation in protein concentration and gluten strength and variation in protein groups and amount and size distribution of mono- and polymeric proteins. The results showed that cultivar and environmental influences giving rise to variation in protein concentration also gave rise to variation in most of the investigated protein components. Protein concentration was significantly positively correlated to the total amounts of glutenins and gliadins and amounts of most mono- and polymeric proteins. However, the correlation with the amount of gliadins and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-soluble mono- and polymeric proteins were often higher than the correlation to the glutenins and the SDS-insoluble mono- and polymeric proteins. Cultivar influences giving rise to variation in gluten strength were found to influence the relation between SDS-soluble and -insoluble polymeric proteins, leading to a significant positive correlation between the gluten strength and the percentage of total unextractable polymeric protein (TUPP) in the total polymeric protein and large unextractable polymeric protein (LUPP) in the total large polymeric protein. Environmental variation in gluten strength was found to be significantly positively correlated to SDS-insoluble proteins and negatively correlated to SDS-soluble proteins. This also led to a significant positive correlation with the percentage of LUPP and/or TUPP.