The distribution of laminin, type IV collagen, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and fibronectin was investigated in the rat testicular lamina propria by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Distinct patterns were observed for each antigen within the extracellular matrix (ECM) layers of the lamina propria. Laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan all localized to the seminiferous tubule basement membrane. Type IV collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, but not laminin, localized to the seminiferous tubule side of the peritubular myoid cells. All four of the antigens were localized between the peritubular and lymphatic endothelial cells. Failure to localize fibronectin in the ECM layer between the Sertoli and peritubular myoid cells tends to support the concept that adult Sertoli cells do not produce this protein in vivo. Intracellular immunostaining was insufficient to allow unambiguous identification of the cellular source of any of the ECM molecules.